With the exception of bread, most of these ingredients come dried, and therefore aren't often at risk of food waste. Once cooked though, the clock starts ticking and then it's time to figure out what to make.
Stale bread? Cool. You're already on the way to making breadcrumbs or bread pudding. Moldy bread? Not cool. Say goodbye.
Here's how I have managed to avoid the moldy bread situation for years now: the freezer! Whenever I buy sliced bread, I freeze the entire loaf as soon as I get it home from the grocery store - we don't eat a lot of bread and I always want my sliced bread toasted, so it's the perfect solution. Just add on a bit more toasting time and your frozen slice will be toast in minutes. If you like your bread untoasted, just freeze the half that always get wasted. If it's an unsliced loaf like a boule or a baguette, I keep it on the counter in a paper bag and stash it in the fridge once it's gone stale.
Put your freezer into use and you don't ever have to throw out extra bread. If you have extra dinner rolls, half a stale loaf you didn't finish, extra croissants in the package - whatever it is, keep it! Make homemade breadcrumbs (better than storebought, and also FREE) or stash it in the freezer until you have time to make Savory or Sweet Bread Pudding, Bread Sauce, Bread Soup (recipes coming soon)....so many delicious things!
Leftover rice is actually ideal for fried rice. Do it. You can also make fried rice with farro or barley, or add leftover cooked rice to a fresh salad.
Since I can never be bothered to gauge the correct amount of pasta for dinner, I almost always make a full box of pasta. My toddler enjoys plain pasta so that's an easy way to use it up, then any leftovers I typically heat up with additional leftovers similar to the below dishes. Adding it to a mac & cheese or baked dish can sometimes mean slightly overcooked pasta, so try to keep leftover pasta on the al dente side.